Thermalization at the femtoscale seen in high-energy Pb+Pb collisions | Colóquio DFMA

terça-feira, 11 Abril, 2023 - 17:00 até 18:00
Prof. Dr. Matthew Luzum - FISMAT IFUSP

Resumo: A collision between two atomic nuclei accelerated close to the speed of light creates a dense system of quarks and gluons. Interactions among them are so strong that they behave collectively like a droplet of fluid of ten-femtometer size, which expands into the vacuum and eventually fragments into thousands of particles. We report direct evidence that this fluid reaches thermalization, at least to some extent, using recent data from the Large Hadron Collider. The ATLAS Collaboration has measured the variance of the momentum per particle across Pb+Pb collision events with the same particle multiplicity. It decreases steeply over a narrow multiplicity range corresponding to central collisions, which hints at an emergent phenomenon. We show that the observed pattern is explained naturally if one assumes that, for a given multiplicity, the momentum per particle increases as a function of the impact parameter of the collision. Since a larger impact parameter goes along with a smaller collision volume, this in turn implies that the momentum per particle increases as a function of density. This is a generic property of relativistic fluids, thus observed for the first time in a laboratory experiment.


Desenvolvido por IFUSP